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Highly n-doped graphene generated through intercalated terbium atoms

L. Daukiya, M. N. Nair, S. Hajjar-Garreau, F. Vonau, D. Aubel, J. L. Bubendorff, M. Cranney, E. Denys, A. Florentin, G. Reiter, and L. Simon. Phys. Rev. B, accepted

We obtained highly n-type doped graphene by intercalating terbium atoms between graphene and SiC(0001) through appropriate annealing in UHV. After terbium intercalation angle-resolved-photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) showed a drastic change in the band structure around the K-points of the Brillouin zone: the well-known conical dispersion band of a graphene monolayer was superposed by a second conical dispersion band of a graphene monolayer with an electron density reaching 1015cm-2. In addition, we demonstrate that atom intercalation proceeds either below the buffer layer or between the buffer layer and monolayer graphene. The intercalation of terbium below a pure buffer layer led to the formation of a highly n-doped graphene monolayer decoupled from the SiC substrate, as evidenced by ARPES and XPS measurements. The band structure of this highly n-doped monolayer graphene showed a kink (a deviation from the linear dispersion of the Dirac-cone) which has been associated to electron-phonon coupling constant one order of magnitude larger than those usually obtained for graphene with intercalated alkali metals.

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